Thermal Mass Flow Meters Save Energy in Wastewater Treatment Plants

Thermal mass flow meters are one of many energy-saving technology solutions that can be used in a variety of applications, including the treatment of wastewater. Various types of processes are used by wastewater treatment plants to remove organic pollutants. Activated sludge systems are currently the most widely used biological treatment. In the activated sludge process, a portion of the activated sludge (frequently from the secondary clarifier) is returned to the aeration basin. Wastewater flows continuously into the aeration basin where air is injected into the wastewater to mix it with the activated sludge. This also provides the oxygen needed for the microorganisms to break down the organic pollutants.

Compressed air is normally used to provide air into the basins. Controlling the amount of air that is released is very important since it controls the growth and the health of the microorganisms. Flow meters are typically installed in the pipes to measure and control the amount of air to run the system properly.

The cost of energy to produce compressed air has increased tremendously due to the high cost of fuel. Regulating and controlling the air injection not only reduces the amount of energy consumed but also optimizes the operation of the plant. While there are many technologies to measure the flow rate of air, most of these methods measure the flow rate at the actual operating pressure and temperature, and require pressure and temperature correction to obtain the mass flow. Traditionally, the most common benefit of thermal dispersion mass flow measurement is the inherent ability to directly measure the mass flow without the need for pressure and temperature correction, as required with volumetric gas flow measurement. This not only provides a more useful flow measurement, but also makes thermal very cost-effective.

Thermal Dispersion Technology

Thermal dispersion technologies are based on the operational principle that states the rate of heat transfer by a flow stream is proportional to its mass flow. The flow measurement is accomplished by precisely measuring the cooling effect as the mass (molecular) flow passes the heated sensor. The sensor consists of two elements: the reference, which measures the temperature of the gas, and a second element, which is heated at a variable power to maintain the desired temperature difference between the two sensors. The illustration below shows the amount of power required to maintain a constant temperature difference between the two sensors. Under low mass flow conditions, there is minimal cooling and little power is required. As the mass flow increases, more power is required. The thermal mass flow meter provides excellent low flow sensitivity and high turndown capabilities.

thermal mass flow meters

Technology Benefits

Thermal mass flow meters offer many advantages over traditional technologies:

  1. Mass flow measurement based upon heat transfer. No correction of the gas flow rate for pressure or temperature is required.
  2. Excellent low flow sensitivity. Sensitive to velocities down to 10 standard feet per minute.
  3. Excellent turndown. Turndown of 100:1 or more depending upon the application requirements and calibration of the instrument.
  4. Low pressure drop. The insertion probe has little blockage of the pipe, creating very low pressure drops.
  5. Ease in installation. The insertion probe can easily be installed in a pipe or duct.
  6. Low installation cost. When considering options to measure mass flow, thermal dispersion has the lowest installed cost while providing excellent performance. No additional instrumentation is required to obtain a mass flow measurement.

Improved process optimization and reduced energy consumption are the main benefits of selecting the proper flow meter for your plant. There are multiple ways to measure air and gas flow rates; thermal mass flow meters should be considered as one of the proven and acceptable methods of measuring air and gas flows in the wastewater industry. For more information on flow instrumentation for this and other applications, visit


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Level Technologies for Chemical Storage Tanks and Makeup Water Treatment

Makeup water treatment is a critical component of the steam generation cycle. It is the means to resupply the system with water suitable for boiler and other operations that, for whatever reason, was lost in the cycle. Unlike other aspects of the steam generation cycle, level control for the water treatment process is not necessarily about efficiency, but rather, accuracy, reliability and safety while providing proper inventory management to ensure chemical storage tanks and makeup water supply meet demand.

chemical storage tanks

High-visibility magnetic level indicator with a magnetostrictive transmitter supports the offloading of ammonia at a combined cycle power plant

The chemical component of the water treatment often presents difficulties for level technologies that may work perfectly on non-chemical applications related to the water treatment process or those with limited variations in the contents of the vessel’s vapor space. Although ammonia, acid, caustic and other chemical storage tanks are not difficult level applications by any stretch, small nuances in how the vessels are monitored relative to level technology can have a dramatic effect on the day-to-day practicality and reliability of the type of instrument(s) used. Additionally, there are safety considerations when replenishing chemicals, as well as short-and long-term maintenance costs, which can be addressed simultaneously with inventory monitoring by implementing a few simple, cost-effective modifications to the instrumentation package.

Considerations for Storage Tank Applications

Demineralization, water header and chemical storage tanks come in a variety of shapes and sizes, usually horizontal or vertical vessels six to ten feet in diameter/height, with the ammonia storage and demineralizer tanks being the largest. It is not uncommon to see some type of level transmitter (ultrasonic being the most prevalent) installed to provide level indication to the control room with a local display at the base of the tank, either in series with the 4–20 mA transmitter output or repeated from the control room. The signal to the control room tracks inventory, acts as a high alarm for overfill protection and establishes the resupply interval. The local display facilitates monitoring the offload of chemicals from the supplier’s truck.

Key Components to Chemical Storage Monitoring

The ideal technology for chemical storage monitoring would be able to address all of these components:

  • Inventory Management (for accuracy)
  • Resistance to chemical attack (for reliability & maintenance)
  • Unaffected by changes in the vapor space of the vessel (for reliability)
  • Performance verification (for maintenance)
  • Visibility during product transfer (for safety)

Chemical Storage and Water Treatment Level Technologies

Accuracy, reliability and visibility in dynamic vessel environments and operational scenarios are a level technology’s best attributes when addressing chemical storage applications. Any number of level technologies can be used in chemical storage tanks. Adhering to the principles of minimizing the number of variables (e.g., vulnerability to process dynamics, calibration, hardware complexity, etc.) that can affect a technology’s ability to perform as intended is a key step in reducing the total cost of ownership. Guided wave (contact) radar as well as its through-air (non-contact) radar counterpart excel in these areas. These two technologies are also very tolerant to a changing vapor space. Magnetic level indicators (MLI) operating in conjunction with Guided Wave Radar or coupled with a magnetostrictive level transmitter offer redundancy and technology diversity while enhancing visibility for improved safety during resupply operations. There is also the added benefit of redundancy when verifying the primary transmitter’s performance during periodic inspections on scheduled outages or while troubleshooting. When magnetostrictive transmitters are paired with MLIs, they offer an alternative to top-mounted level transmitter technologies while being isolated from vessel contents. For non-chemical or less critical applications in the water treatment process, ultrasonic (non-contact) transmitters are an excellent level measurement solution.

More Information

Learn more about instrumentation for every part of the steam generation cycle, from steam drum level control to the condensate recovery process and much more, at

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Level and Flow Solutions for Natural Gas Dehydration Skids

Natural gas is one of the most widely used commercial gases because it is odorless, colorless, tasteless and non-toxic. However, it needs to undergo extensive purification before it can become pipeline-quality. Water vapor is the most common undesirable impurity found in natural gas. Left untreated, it can result in the formation of ice-like hydrates, which plug flow lines and natural gas processing equipment, causing severe operational problems. Two methods employed for natural gas dehydration are expansion refrigeration, or absorption through the use of solid or liquid desiccants.

Natural gas dehydration methods, especially glycol dehydration, can be fabricated as self-contained modular skid systems. This approach is increasing in popularity throughout many industries as a flexible, cost-effective and lower-impact way of conducting process operations. This post will discuss level and flow solutions for natural gas dehydration skids and is part of an occasional Magnetrol® blog series on modular skid systems.

Glycol Dehydration Skids
The use of ethylene glycol liquid desiccants is one of the most established and reliable techniques for natural gas dehydration. Liquid desiccants include diethylene glycol (DEG), triethylene glycol (TEG), and tetraethylene glycol (TETRA EG). The dehydration process is sometimes separated into two skids: one for glycol absorption and another for glycol reconditioning.

Ethylene glycol flows downward from the top of a tower and meets a rising mixture of water vapor and hydrocarbon gases. Dry gas exits from the top of the tower while the glycol/water mixture is pumped out of the bottom. The glycol and water are separated, and the glycol is recycled.

natural gas dehydration

Level and Flow Applications

  1. Glycol Contactor
    Wet natural gas first flows through a glycol contactor to remove all liquid and solid impurities. The gas flows upward through the contactor where it is contacted and dried by glycol. The ‘pipeline-ready’ dried gas passes through a heat exchanger and into the application loop. Water-rich glycol is withdrawn from the bottom of the absorber via a level controller.
    Continuous Level: Eclipse® Model 706 Guided Wave Radar Transmitter
    Point Level: Tuffy® II Float Level Switch
  1. Flash Tank
    Skids are often provided with low pressure, three-phase flash separators to separate solution gas from the glycol and hydrocarbon condensate. A flash separator also removes up to 90% of methane emissions. The flash separator is installed on the rich glycol line between first pass of the glycol/glycol heat exchanger and the glycol filter bank.
    Continuous Level: ECLIPSE Model 706 Guided Wave Radar Transmitter
  1. Glycol Circulation Pump Protection
    Glycol recirculation pumps operating in a reduced or no-flow condition can overheat, rupture the pump’s seal, and disrupt the glycol reconditioning circuit. A flow switch along the pump’s discharge piping will actuate an alarm and shut down the pump when liquid flow drops below the minimum flow rate.
    Flow Alarm: Thermatel® Model TD1/TD2 Thermal Dispersion Switch for low-flow cutoff
  1. Exhaust Gas Flow Monitoring
    Exhaust gases emitted from the reboiler that are discharged directly to the atmosphere can be monitored by a mass flow transmitter. Because flow rates and gas compositions fluctuate, the mass flow transmitter can be used to obtain relative flow indication.
    Continuous Gas Flow: THERMATEL Model TA2 Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Meter


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Eliminating Hidden Maintenance Costs With Condensate Recovery Process Level Control

The benefits of any condensate recovery system are well documented in industries relying on steam generation for their processes. Condensate has real value in that every gallon recovered spares the cost of additional makeup water, makeup water treatment and/or wasteful discharge to municipal or other systems. Oftentimes, it is the instrumentation, or lack thereof, that limits the performance of the overall system causing the condensate recovery process to fall short of financial expectations. Three areas of particular interest relative to efficiency when it comes to level controls are the condensate receiver and main condensate tanks, condensate pumps and associated valves as well as any shell and tube heat exchangers/condensers.

condensate recovery cycle

The Condensate Recovery Process

The condensate receiver tanks accept blow‐through steam and condensate from various steam process groups throughout a plant. Condensate is later pumped to the main condensate tank where it is stored pending reintroduction into the steam generation cycle. The shell and tube heat exchanger/condenser allows what would otherwise be waste energy to be recovered in the form of flash steam from the receiver tank to preheat makeup water or other process fluids through the heat of condensation. The resulting condensate drains back to the condensate or condensate receiver tank. 

The level transmitter on the condensate receiver tank facilitates the automatic management of the condensate level to ensure adequate capacity is available to accommodate (recover) condensate from various plant processes as well as maintaining sufficient headspace in the vessel for the creation of flash steam. Aside from being a critical asset for the plant, the condensate in the condensate receiver tank also protects valves and condensate pump seals from direct exposure to high temperature steam while maintaining a minimum head pressure on the pump. This prevents hardware damage, expensive maintenance and downtime of the receiver tank, and subsequent ripple effects on the steam generation cycle and makeup water requirements. Lastly, the level transmitter provides the control signals for the valves and condensate pump necessary to transfer condensate from the receiver to the main condensate tank, ensuring approximately 15 percent level retention for the aforementioned reasons. At this point, the main condensate tank level transmitters take over to manage boiler feed water supply to service steam generation demand.

Advantages of Guided Wave Radar and Magnetic Level Indicators

In order to ensure that the condensate recovery process has efficient level control, plants need to install high-quality level instrumentation. Guided wave radar (GWR) and magnetic level indicators are two technologies that can help eliminate hidden maintenance costs. GWR and magnetic level indicators are designed for high-temperature steam applications. Both technologies provide reliable measurement in a wide range of applications. They require no calibration and have setup wizards with full diagnostics for fast setup and fault isolation. Each instrument can be pre-configured for the specific application where it is being placed. The instrumentation hardware is simplified—and in the case of GWR, has no moving parts, eliminating instrument-induced errors. Using a GWR transmitter in conjunction with a magnetic level indicator provides level measurement for every aspect of the condensate recovery process.

With proper level instrumentation, the hidden maintenance costs in this process can be reduced or even eliminated. Learn more about GWR, magnetic level indicators and other technology for monitoring the steam generation cycle and condensate recovery process at

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Level and Flow Instrumentation for Water and Wastewater Treatment

In a world more focused than ever on safe, sustainable stewardship of our water resources, it is critical to continue to improve the ways in which we measure and treat potable water and wastewater. Increased public awareness drives the need for safe, accurate and reliable level and flow instrumentation, in the harshest environments, under the most extreme conditions. At the same time, the regulatory climate requires plants to implement next-generation process improvement – moving from energy efficiency to energy independence water and wastewater treatmentand realizing cost-savings in doing so. Water and wastewater treatment plants need level and flow solutions that can effectively manage technological and industry demands.

Throughout water and wastewater treatment operations, numerous opportunities exist to measure and improve process conditions. The use of effective level instrumentation can enhance your facility’s efficiency, safety and environmental impact. Here are a few of the applications where level instrumentation can improve performance:

Liquid Level Applications 

  1. Lift Station Pump Control
    Proper level control in wet wells alleviates pump surging and frequent cycling, and minimizes the downstream drop of influent flumes.
  • Pulsar® Model R96 or Model R82 Pulse Burst Radar Transmitter
  • Eclipse® Model 706 Guided Wave Radar Transmitter
  • Model T10 Tethered Float Switch
  1. Chemical Feed Tanks
    Stringent level monitoring ensures consistent, ongoing chemical treatment.
  • PULSAR Model R96 or R82 Pulse Burst Radar Transmitter
  • ECLIPSE Model 706 Guided Wave Radar Transmitter
  • Echotel® Model 355 Ultrasonic Non-Contact Transmitter
  • Vector™ Magnetic Level Indicator
  1. Splitter Box Level
    Level control in splitter boxes helps maintain balanced routing of influent wastewater.
  • PULSAR Model R96 or Model R82 Pulse Burst Radar Transmitter
  • ECLIPSE Model 706 Guided Wave Radar Transmitter
  • ECHOTEL Model 355 Ultrasonic Non-Contact Transmitter
  1. Clarifier Level
    Continuous level management of the clarifier level maximizes efficient treatment flow in sedimentation areas.
  • PULSAR Model R96 or Model R82 Pulse Burst Radar Transmitter
  • ECLIPSE Model 706 Guided Wave Radar Transmitter
  • ECHOTEL Model 355 Ultrasonic Non-Contact Transmitter
  1. Sludge Level
    Sludge level is monitored to control against discharge or dilution.
  • PULSAR Model R96 or Model R82 Pulse Burst Radar Transmitter
  • ECLIPSE Model 706 Guided Wave Radar Transmitter
  • ECHOTEL Model 355 Ultrasonic Non-Contact Transmitter
  1. Digester Level
    Foaming requires advanced level control technologies for measurement accuracy.
  • PULSAR Model R96 or Model R82 Pulse Burst Radar Transmitter
  • ECLIPSE Model 706 Guided Wave Radar Transmitter
  • ECHOTEL Model 355 Ultrasonic Non-Contact Transmitter

More Information
For more information on other level and flow instrumentation for water and wastewater treatment plant applications, please download the Magnetrol® brochure on the water and wastewater industry.

water and wastewater treatment

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Measurement Technology for Hygienic Process Equipment

In order to maintain high standards of cleanliness, sterility and process control, the food and beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries need reliable measurement solutions for their hygienic process equipment. Hygienic level and flow instrumentation is manufactured from microbe-resistant materials and designed to withstand aggressive chemicals and sterilization. Magnetrol® has created a line of hygienic products to provide reliable, repeatable measurement while maintaining the cleanliness and sterility of the process environment.

Guided Wave Radar

Since ingredients in the food and beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries may be very valuable, it’s crucial to make sure that the level and volume of these ingredients is hygienic process equipment 1precisely measured. Guided wave radar (GWR) technology can provide this precision for hygienic process equipment. MAGNETROL produces the Eclipse® GWR transmitter for accurate, continuous monitoring of level and volume in a tank. The transmitter is encased in a 304 stainless steel housing designed specifically for hygienic applications. The ECLIPSE probe can be constructed to conform to the exact shape of a tank or vessel, ensuring that it can measure to very low retention levels.

Ultrasonic Level Measurement

Using an ultrasonic level measurement device can help operators detect a maximum high level in a tank or storage vessel. The MAGNETROL Echotel® transmitter is unaffected by any turbulence that may develop during the mixing or blending process. Challenging process conditions may exist, such as aeration and suspended solids. These challenges can be overcome by using pulsed signal circuitry, which does not need to be configured for different media densities. The ECHOTEL also has excellent immunity from sources of electrical noise interference, reducing the possibility of false measurement readings.

Thermal Dispersion Mass Flow Measurement

A thermal dispersion mass flow switch, such as the MAGNETROL Thermatel® Model TD2, can detect the presence or absence of liquid at the bottom of the vessel. Thermal mass flow switches can also be used for pump protection or to detect flow/no-flow in pipelines. The TD2 can be used in applications where a high viscosity liquid might plug up an ultrasonic unit’s transducer gap. It is specifically designed for easy wipe down and its sensor is free of cracks and crevices where microbes might hide.

By combining multiple technologies, such as the three mentioned in this article, industry operators can ensure the safety and efficiency of their hygienic process equipment.

More Information

MAGNETROL has produced a video on hygienic instrumentation and its applications. For more information on the technologies described in this article, view the video.

hygienic process equipment 2

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Displacer Level Transmitter Technology Provides Reliable Measurement

For liquid level measurement in challenging process operations, displacer level transmitter technology is a safe, reliable solution. Displacer level transmitters have significant advantages over competitive technology, such as torque tubes or differential pressure transmitters. Magnetrol® has developed a displacer transmitter, the E3 Modulevel®, for level, density and clean interface measurement in high-temperature and other extreme process environments.

E3 Modulevel® Design

displacer level transmitter

The E3 Modulevel® displacer transmitter

The E3 MODULEVEL operates using range spring technology, which offers increased output stability. The liquid levels of the process media act on the range spring displacer, which causes vertical motion of the core within a linear variable differential transformer, or LVDT. As the core position changes, voltages are induced across the secondary windings of the LVDT. These signals are processed in the electronic circuitry and converted to a useable output signal. The enclosing tube of the displacer level transmitter acts as a static isolation barrier between the LVDT and the process media.

Configuring the E3 MODULEVEL only requires two configuration parameters: operating temperature and specific gravity. This makes it easy and fast to switch the product being measured in the tank and reconfigure the transmitter. The software can be programmed in a wet or dry environment, which can save time and money.


The adaptability of the E3 MODULEVEL displacer level transmitter makes it suitable for a wide range of applications, including:

  • Condensate receiver tanks
  • Distillation towers
  • Chemical liquid extraction
  • Crude dewatering
  • Distillation columns
  • Catalytic crackers
  • Hydrocracking

More Information

MAGNETROL recently produced a video with more details on the E3 MODULEVEL, including further information about safety features and advantages over competitive technologies. In addition, visit the MAGNETROL site on displacer level transmitter technology to learn more about our products.


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Flare Gas Applications for the Oil and Gas Industry

Environmental laws and restrictions mandate the precise monitoring of flare gas in the oil and gas industry. Hydrocarbon gases are often flared in a high-temperature oxidation process, which burns combustible components of waste. Natural gas, propane, ethylene, propylene, butadiene and butane constitute over 95 percent of the waste gases flared. A flow meter is required to monitor the waste gases. Consideration must be given to abruptness of flow change, low pressures, and a wide range of velocities. Thermal dispersion flow meters are ideal for flow measurement in flare stacks and headers due to low flow sensitivity and high turndown.

Benefits of Thermal Mass Flow Meters

The Magnetrol® Thermatel® TA2 thermal dispersion mass flow meter provides reliable flare_gasmass flow measurement for flare gas applications to comply with monitoring requirements. No additional pressure or temperature compensation is necessary to achieve a flow rate at standard or base conditions from a single transmitter. The TA2 can measure accurately at the lowest flows and pressures in any line size. It includes hot tap options for removal under process conditions. Calibrations for mixed gases are available and the insertion probe can be supplied with a retractable device for removing the probe for cleaning.

In addition, the TA2 has a high turndown with auto-switching capability—it can hold two calibration curves and provide two current outputs. The user can enable the auto-switching feature so the transmitter automatically switches between calibration tables. Maximum resolution is provided as the current outputs are scaled for the individual curves and extended turndown is achieved. The more power changes with flow, the greater the sensitivity of the flow meter, which is crucial for accurately monitoring flare gas.

To learn more about the TA2 and other MAGNETROL flow measurement products, you can visit our flow site.


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The Advantages of Range Spring/LVDT Technology For Level Measurement

One of the most trusted devices for continuous liquid level measurement remains the displacer level transmitter. This transmitter operates on the Archimedes principle of buoyancy, which holds that any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.LVDT technology

The two main technologies that are used as displacer level transmitters in the industry are torque tubes and range spring/LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer) technologies. There are substantial technology advantages that can make using range spring/LVDT technology based displacer transmitters preferable to a torque tube based instrument. Magnetrol® has produced a new white paper comparing range spring/LVDT technology to torque tubes. In this white paper, you will be able to learn about both technologies extensively so you can make an informed choice:

  • See the significant differences in measurement accuracy
  • Investigate in-depth the structural integrity of the two technologies
  • View the installation footprints of torque tube and range spring/LVDT transmitters
  • Explore the maintenance considerations for these technologies
  • Compare the liquid level measurement transmitters point-by-point

More Information

More about the advantages of range spring/LVDT technology over torque tubes can be found in the new white paper, including information about the structural integrity, installation footprint and maintenance of both technologies. In addition, visit the MAGNETROL site on displacer transmitters to learn more about our technology offerings.


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Vulnerabilities in Boiler and Steam Drum Level Control Technology

Technologies historically used for boiler and steam drum level control rely on inference or buoyancy to determine the level. This in itself leaves them vulnerable to process dynamics (specific gravity, pressure, temperature, etc.) or limits their ability to precisely manage the level for improved fuel economy. Although corrections can be applied to mitigate the effects, the variables that need to be accounted for increase the level control’s installation, hardware and calibration complexity, which has the unintended consequence of introducing new avenues for error.

The hardware and calibration complexity and vulnerability to process conditions introduce additional costs and potential errors in any given level measurement technology.

The hardware and calibration complexity and vulnerability to process conditions introduce additional costs and potential errors in any given level measurement technology.

Magnetrol® has produced the “Steam Generation Cycle and Condensate Recovery Process Optimization Kit” to help improve boiler and steam drum level control and increase efficiency throughout the steam generation cycle. The kit includes a white paper that identifies key areas where cost-effective instrumentation solutions can improve control. Here is an excerpt from the white paper on the vulnerabilities of various technologies for boiler and steam drum level control:

Eliminating potential sources of error (including human error) as related to an instrument’s fundamental technology is the first step in optimizing boiler/steam drum level control. A quick peek at various technologies reveals their shortfalls as related to boiler/steam drum level control:

  • Differential Pressure – a complex system of tubing, condensate pot and transmitter(s) based on inference requiring up to 12 process parameters to properly calibrate. External inputs and corrections are applied to ensure accuracy.
  • Buoyancy (displacer) – accuracy from startup to operational temperatures is not achievable due to displacer being designed for the specific gravity at operational conditions. Calibration and mechanical wear may introduce errors over time.
  • Buoyancy (mechanical switch for on/off control) – a low-cost solution for smaller boilers; however, introduction of larger volumes of sub-cooled liquid could affect performance and increase fuel consumption as compared to a continuous type measurement.
  • RF Capacitance – based on the dielectric constant of the process medium. The dielectric constant of water/condensate changes as a function of temperature, introducing unnecessary errors. Requires in-situ calibration.
  • Conductivity – high upfront and probe maintenance costs as compared to other technologies. Not a continuous measurement. Resolution is contingent on the proximity of adjacent conductivity probes across the measurement span; vulnerable to scale accumulation and fouling.

Guided Wave Radar (GWR), on the other hand, is a continuous measurement technology that has the distinct advantage of not being vulnerable to changes in process conditions that affect the aforementioned measurement techniques. Since its performance and accuracy are not contingent on the specific gravity and/or inference, it excels in measuring the actual liquid level in all conditions encountered in the boiler/steam drum. Furthermore, GWR does not require external inputs or calibration to achieve specified performance — accuracy is inherent to the technology. This effectively eliminates the introduction of errors during the calibration process or from external sources, i.e., pressure and temperature. A reduction in the number of variables affecting the measurement provides a high degree of data certainty allowing operators to better maintain the Normal Water Level (NWL) in the boiler/steam drum for optimal water/steam separation throughout a variety of process conditions.

GWR provides the reliable measurement that is needed for improved boiler and steam drum level control. With better level control, an operation can reduce heat rate, environmental impact, fuel and water consumption, water treatment and maintenance costs in commercial and heavy industries where steam generation is essential to the production processes. To learn more, visit

steam generation

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