Level Measurement Solutions for Crude Desalting

The first step to treating and refining crude oil is crude desalting. Inorganic chlorides, suspended solids, and trace metals found in untreated crude must be removed by chemical or electrostatic desalting. This reduces the risk of acid corrosion, plugging, fouling and catalyst poisoning in downstream units. The salts most frequently found in crude oil are calcium, sodium and magnesium chlorides.

Desalting units typically remove unwanted compounds either through a chemical additive that aids in the separation of the compounds from the oil, or through the use of an electrostatic field that creates force to separates the compounds. One-stage units or two-stage units can be utilized for crude desalting.

crude desalting

A crude desalting unit

Magnetrol® has produced an applications brochure for the petroleum refining industry detailing measurement challenges and solutions for each step of the refining process. This blog post is part of an occasional series exploring each application in detail.

Level Measurement Challenges and Considerations 

Measurement of the oil/water interface in the desalter is crucial in separating the cleansed crude from contaminants. But coating and build-up on probes may create interface measurement errors. In addition, instruments susceptible to electrostatic grid interference may require special filters in order to render accurate measurements. Interface-dedicated level transmitters fitted with quick-disconnect probes provide optimum performance while reducing cleaning and maintenance time.

Level Measurement Solutions

MAGNETROL has produced level measurement solutions for crude desalting that are equipped to deal with the challenges of interface:

  • Model A15 displacer-actuated level switch
  • Eclipse® Model 706 guided wave radar transmitter
  • E3 Modulevel® displacer-actuated transmitter

More Information

For more information on level solutions for crude desalting and other petroleum refining applications, download the petroleum refining brochure. And to learn more about interface level measurement, download the interface brochure.

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Level Measurement Solutions for Crude Oil Dewatering

All unrefined crude oil stored in tanks has a percentage of water entrained within it, and while stored in tanks, separation naturally occurs with water collecting at the bottom of the tank beneath the oil. The two fluids are very distinct except for a “black water” or “rag” interface layer which is an emulsion of mixed oil and water.

Before the oil can be refined, a dewatering process must take place. To dewater the tank, water is drawn off of the bottom of the tank and is then sent off to water treatment. Once this is complete, the crude oil is ready for refining.

Magnetrol® has produced an applications brochure for the petroleum refining industry detailing measurement challenges and solutions for each step of the refining process. This blog post is part of an occasional series exploring each application in detail. crude oil dewatering

Level Measurement Challenges and Considerations

All level instruments used for crude oil dewatering must be capable of accurate interface level measurement. Level controls designed for interface detection will sense the beginning of the oil/water interface during dewatering procedures and provide feedback to a control system which will terminate water draw-off when appropriate.

Level Measurement Solutions 

MAGNETROL has produced level measurement solutions for crude oil dewatering:

  • Model A-15 displacer-actuated switch
  • Eclipse® Model 706 guided wave radar transmitter
  • E3 Modulevel® displacer-actuated transmitter

More Information 

For more information on level measurement solutions for crude oil dewatering and other petroleum refining applications, download the petroleum refining brochure.

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Level Solutions for Crude Oil Storage

The naturally occurring liquid form of petroleum is known as crude oil. Each day, crude oil is brought to petroleum refineries. Upon arrival at the refinery terminal, crude oil is pumped into above-ground storage tanks with capacities of thousands to millions of gallons. Raw crude is stored in floating- or fixed-roof tanks field-built to API standards. Proper crude oil storage is the first step to refined petroleum.

crude oil storage

Crude oil storage tanks.

Magnetrol® has produced an applications brochure for the petroleum refining industry detailing measurement challenges and solutions for each step of the refining process. This blog post is part of an occasional series exploring each application in detail.

Level Measurement Challenges and Considerations

Crude oil storage tank level is maintained by valve actuation. By triggering an emergency cutoff, level controls prevent overflows and shut down pumps when level falls below low level. This helps to reduce or eliminate accidents. Safety-certified controls may be necessary due to crude’s low flash point.

Traditionally, mechanical float gauges and servo gauges have been used to measure crude oil storage tanks. However, tank level measurement by non-contact radar has gained share over mechanical float type and servo gauges due to its accuracy, low maintenance, and lack of moving parts.

Level Measurement Solutions 

MAGNETROL has produced level measurement solutions for crude oil storage tanks:

  • Model A15 displacer-actuated level switch
  • Pulsar® Model R86 pulse burst radar
  • Eclipse® Model 706 guided wave radar transmitter with 7Y1 flexible single cable probe

More Information

For more information on level solutions for crude oil storage and other petroleum refining applications, download the petroleum refining brochure.

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Level Measurement Solutions for Water Wash Tanks

Gas turbines are used throughout power generation plants to drive electrical generators. The compressor of a gas turbine ingests a large amount of air containing particulate matter, aerosols of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds and gases. Although the larger particulate matter is filtered out, the other compounds are deposited on the compressor blades. Compressor washing removes this deposited fouling and restores the aerodynamic profile and compressor efficiency.

Also used for cleaning generator or other machinery and equipment components, water wash is periodically discharged as wastewater. Once the compressors and other equipment have been cleaned, water wash is collected in a dedicated collection tank.

water wash tanks

A water wash tank

Magnetrol® has produced an applications brochure for the power and utilities industry detailing measurement challenges and solutions for each step of the power generation process. This blog post is part of an occasional series exploring each application in detail.

Level Measurement Challenges and Considerations

 Collected water wash is generally stored in a tank monitored for level with typical capacities of 50 to 100 gallons. Level instrumentation must be able to ensure that these tanks stay at capacity.

Level Measurement Solutions

MAGNETROL has produced level measurement solutions for water wash tanks:

  • For point level: Top mount float-actuated switches
  • For continuous level: Echotel® Model 355 non-contact ultrasonic radar transmitter or Eclipse® Model 706 guided wave radar transmitter
  • For visual indication: Top mount Atlas™ magnetic level indicator

More Information

For more information on level measurement solutions for water wash tanks or other power generation applications, download the power generation brochure.

power generation

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Level Measurement Solutions for Lubricant Oil Tanks

The friction involved in working machines can cause wear and tear throughout power generation plants. Generators and gas turbines will have integral lubricating systems to prevent damage caused by excessive friction. Often a portion of the lubricant oil is used in the hydraulic oil systems for hydraulic control devices.

Lubricant oil tanks

Lubricating oil is typically stored in integral stainless steel and carbon steel tanks that are monitored for level. A generator gearbox lubricant oil system may have a reservoir with a capacity of 3,000 gallons and a turbine oil system may have a reservoir with a capacity of 150 gallons.

Magnetrol® has produced an applications brochure for the power and utilities industry detailing measurement challenges and solutions for each step of the power generation process. This blog post is part of an occasional series exploring each application in detail.

Level Measurement Challenges and Considerations

 Adequate level monitoring of lubricant oil reservoirs will ensure the proper functioning of turbines, electrical generators and other equipment with integral lubrication systems. If the level runs low, it could impede the proper operation of this equipment. Level instrumentation selected to measure lubricant oil tanks must be able to precisely detect changes in level.

Level Measurement Solutions

 MAGNETROL has produced level measurement solutions for lubricant oil tanks:

  • Tuffy® II float-actuated switches
  • Eclipse® Model 706 guided wave radar transmitter or Pulsar® Model R86 non-contact radar transmitter
  • Echotel® Model 355 non-contact ultrasonic transmitter

More Information

For more information on level measurement solutions for lubricant oil tanks or other power generation applications, download the power generation brochure.

power generation

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How Magnetrol® Radar Level Transmitters Differentiate Themselves

There are many things to consider when choosing a radar transmitter. Deciding what instrumentation to use for a specific application will depend not only on the nature of the application, but also on other factors such as cost and availability. Four of the most important factors to consider when selecting radar level transmitters for any application are performance, diagnostics, versatility, and ease of use.

Magnetrol® produces two types of radar level transmitters: guided wave radar and non-contact radar. Both of these transmitters have characteristics that include these four important factors. Here’s how the Eclipse® Model 706 guided wave radar and Pulsar® Model R86 and Model R96 non-contact radar transmitters meet crucial needs for level measurement applications.

Eclipse® Model 706 Guided Wave Radar

Performance

The ECLIPSE Model 706 is virtually unaffected by extreme process conditions, including temperature, pressure, specific gravity and dielectric. This means it can be used across process industries even in the most challenging applications. It also has superior signal strength—and the Model 706 has a signal to noise ratio almost 3 times higher than its nearest competitor. Using the ECLIPSE, a plant can measure tougher applications with less downtime.

Diagnostics

In addition to an automatic waveform capture feature, the ECLIPSE tracks and saves real-time and historical data about device performance to help guide users to pinpoint issues when they arise. The device features an LCD display that outputs real-time field intelligence without the need for an instruction manual.

Versatility

A broad probe offering allows the Model 706 to be used in a wide variety of process conditions and connections.

Ease of Use

The ECLIPSE Model 706 comes preconfigured, which means plant operators can take it out of the box, attach two wires, and walk away knowing the transmitter is ready to measure.

Pulsar® Model R86 Non-Contact Radar

Performance

The PULSAR Model R86 features a 26GHz signal, with a shorter wavelength that offers smaller antennas, a narrower beam and improved accuracy. This gives it improved performance in the most demanding process conditions. It also comes with volumetric configurations to help you set up the device for your precise needs. These configurations feature nine common tank shapes as well as a strapping table for uncommonly shaped vessels.

radar level transmitters

The Pulsar® R86 adapts to fit any application.

Diagnostics

As with the Model 706, the Model R86 has automated echo capture that grabs an echo curve based on key diagnostics, such as loss of echo. An expanded event history shows when and why the echo curve was triggered. This helps plant operators keep track of their operations, even when they may not be present for the event that triggered the curve. Up to 20 configuration and diagnostic events can be viewed in chronological order for the most in-depth troubleshooting insights.

Versatility

The Model R86 can be used in tall tanks up to 40 meters, short tanks, mixing blades, and applications with turbulence. It has 4 horn sizes available for use in punishing conditions and difficult applications. Small antennas can be installed in process connections as small as 1 ½”. Nozzle extensions are also available for underground vessel standpipes.

Ease of Use

The circular polarization of the PULSAR Model R86 simplifies installation. No antenna adjustment is needed—whatever direction you orient the transmitter offers the proper alignment. The transmitter also features a setup wizard that explains the configuration process step by step, with real-time help text built in.

More Information

For more information on the MAGNETROL line of radar level transmitters and how to choose the best transmitter for your application, visit our radar solutions site.

guided wave radar

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Level Measurement Solutions for Cooling Tower Basins

Power plants produce large amounts of waste heat as a byproduct of their operations, and must cool their circulating water. Open-system cooling towers reject waste heat from the steam cycle by exposing the cooling water directly to the atmosphere. The majority of heat removed is due to evaporation and the remaining cooled water is collected in cooling tower basins. In a once-through cooling system, the water intake structure is often a vertical wet pit pump; other cooling systems use gravity drip in order to introduce water into the system.

cooling tower basins

Cooling towers

Magnetrol® has produced an applications brochure for the power and utilities industry, detailing measurement challenges and solutions for each step of the power generation process. This blog post is part of an occasional series exploring each application in detail.

Level Measurement Challenges and Considerations

Water infeed and basin levels of the cooling tower require level sensing and control. Level control applications include a high level switch to avoid overflow conditions in the cooling tower basin.

In the case of a once-through cooling system using a vertical wet pit pump for water intake, high and low level sensing and possible pump control are needed to make sure the intake system is operating correctly.

In frigid climates, a level switch can work in tandem with a resistance heater to protect standing water in the cooling tower basin against freezing.

In all cases, protecting and securing the accurate level of cooling tower basins and water infeeds is key to efficiency and safety.

Level Measurement Solutions

MAGNETROL has produced level measurement solutions for cooling tower basins:

  • Models A15 or B10 displacer-actuated switches
  • Eclipse® Model 706 guided wave radar transmitter

More Information

 For more information on level measurement solutions for cooling tower basins and other industry applications, download the power industry brochure.

power generation

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Level Solutions for Open Atmosphere Sumps

Power generating facilities have large, open atmosphere collection basins known as sumps that are usually found in wastewater treatment areas. Often constructed of concrete, with depths ranging from four to ten feet, sumps function as collection and treatment sites for waste liquids ranging from storm water runoff to excess make-up water. open atmosphere sumps

Sumps can be used for collecting many different types of waste liquid, but no matter the liquid it stores, a sump plays a very important role for a power generation facility. Keeping waste properly contained protects power plants against accidents and damage.

Magnetrol® has produced an applications brochure for the power and utilities industry, detailing measurement challenges and solutions for each step of the power generation process. This blog post is part of an occasional series exploring each application in detail.

Level Measurement Challenges and Considerations

Level controls in these areas must often tolerate corrosive media, harsh chemicals, liquids with high solids content and punishing weather conditions. With many possible uses for sumps, chemical composition and temperatures will vary. Any instrumentation selected to monitor sump level should be chosen with the specific waste liquid in mind for maximum effectiveness. Proper level control will also help ensure the continuous operation of collection and processing basins.

Level Measurement Solutions for Open Atmosphere Sumps

MAGNETROL has produced level measurement solutions for open atmosphere sumps and collection basins:

  • Models A10 or B10 displacer-actuated switches
  • Eclipse® Model 706 guided wave radar transmitter
  • Echotel® Model 335 non-contact ultrasonic transmitter
  • Model R82 pulse burst radar transmitter

More Information

For more information on level measurement solutions for open atmosphere sumps and other power industry applications, download the power industry brochure.

power generation

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Level Solutions for Service Water Storage

Service water is treated water that is used for specific industrial purposes. In the power generation industry, service water is utilized for general plant services. These include pump and instrument seal water, fire water, demineralization, cooling and make-up water supply.

This treated water is stored in tanks around the facility. In the event the supply of water is interrupted, storage tanks with a capacity to support three days to one week of operation allow continued plant operations. Water level in these tanks must be monitored to ensure there is always an adequate supply.

service water storage

A service water storage tank.

Magnetrol® has produced an applications brochure for the power and utilities industry, detailing measurement challenges and solutions for each step of the power generation process. This blog post is part of an occasional series exploring each application in detail.

Level Measurement Challenges and Considerations

Level measurement and flow detection devices are crucial for effective water source management. Since the treated water is often used for essential services such as cooling and fire prevention, low water level could lead to accidents or explosions. Collectors and storage tanks are typically fixed roof, vertical cylindrical steel tanks, and typical measurement ranges are from 24 to 50 feet. The instruments selected must provide accurate readings in these tank conditions.

Level Measurement Solutions

MAGNETROL has produced level measurement solutions for service water storage:

  • For point level:
    Models B10 or B15 displacer-actuated switches
  • For continuous level:
    Eclipse® Model 706 guided wave radar transmitter; Pulsar® Model R86 pulse burst radar transmitter; Echotel® Models 300 or 335 non-contact ultrasonic transmitters

More Information

For more information on level measurement solutions for service water storage and other power industry applications, download the power industry brochure.

power generation

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Level Measurement Solutions for Demineralization Tanks

Power generation plants rely on boilers and feedwater heaters to produce necessary steam. Because modern high-pressure boilers evaporate several million pounds of water every working hour, the purity of feedwater circulating inside the boiler is essential.

Ensuring pure feedwater can be achieved using different methods. A feedwater evaporator can be used as an alternative method to chemicals by removing impurities through evaporating raw water with extraction steam. However, most often the purity of feedwater is achieved by chemical treatment. This chemical treatment takes place in demineralization tanks, which transform the raw water into water that will not harm or corrode the boiler.

A demineralization tank.

Magnetrol® has produced an applications brochure for the power and utilities industry, detailing measurement challenges and solutions for each step of the power generation process. This blog post is part of an occasional series exploring each application in detail.

Level Measurement Challenges and Considerations 

Because support chemicals for water treatment can include caustics, sodium hypochloride, sulfuric acid or other additives, it is important to choose level instruments that will be able to withstand these harsh conditions. Managing the water supply level requires instrumentation that maintains its accuracy even when exposed to chemicals. Small nuances in how the demineralization tanks are monitored relative to level technology can have a dramatic effect on the day-to-day practicality and reliability of the type of instrument(s) used. Individual chemistry and storage requirements will dictate the level instrumentation selected.

Level Measurement Solutions

 MAGNETROL has produced level measurement solutions for demineralization tanks:

  • For point level:
    Models T52 or T62 float-actuated switches
  • For continuous level:
    Eclipse® Model 706 guided wave radar transmitter or E3 Modulevel® displacer-actuated transmitter

More Information

For more information on level solutions for demineralization tanks and other power generation applications, download the power industry brochure.

power generation

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